partial esterification of the condensed castor oil fatty acids with polyglycerol. Another important application of PGPR is its use as a water-in-oil emulsifier for the production of low-fat spreads. Depending upon their HLB, PGFA can act as water-in-oil (W/O) or oil-in-water (O/W) emulsifiers . Polyglycerol esters are nonionic emulsifiers that are allowed for food use in many countries. The reaction takes place immediately following the preparation of the latter and in the same vessel, while the charge is still hot. INTENDED USAGE :
On the other hand, in esterification/hydrolysis reactions it is well known that the water content affects the equilibrium conversion of the reactions. As described previously, the authors have optimized the immobilization process of Candida rugosa lipase, and as a preliminary attempt the same technique was used in this work in order to compare the behavior of these three lipases. When this occurs, the manufacturing process needs to be examined, or the confectionary needs to be reformulated [44â47]. Indeed, it leads to better emulsification properties and a higher viscosity of the external water phase, resulting in enhanced stabilization of O/W emulsions and foams. 5.0 (1) "Professional service" Contact Supplier. This acid value is equivalent to an average of about four-five fatty acid residues per molecule of the condensed product.The operation conditions can be found in several papers. These are listed in Table 3 . Lipases are able to act in mild reaction conditions and produce a final product more suitable for use as a food additive. They are classified into two main groups: antioxidants (compounds that delay or prevent the deterioration of foods by oxidative mechanisms) and antimicrobials (inhibit the growth of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms in food). The results of these studies have been published in several papers [40, 48â52]. PGPR is also claimed to increase chocolateâs tolerance to the thickening effect caused by small quantities of water, sometimes introduced during enrobing operations . This deodorization step employs the injection of steam into the reactor at temperatures between 150Â°C and 200Â°C with strong vacuum. Exposure: Polyglycerol polyricinoleate is permitted only in cocoa-based confectionary, including chocolate up to 5 g/kg and in some fat-products up to 4 g/kg. Since lecithin and PGPR have complementary rheological properties, they are often used in combination for an optimal control of chocolate rheology [23, 43]. Many reported lipase-catalyzed syntheses are carried out in organic solvents. Solvent-free processes are thus desired [70â73] due to their advantages  and because they fulfill the twelve principles of the Green Chemistry, as defined by Anastas and Warner . The two main categories in which lipase-catalyzed reactions may be classified are as follows . It can be observed that the lowest acid values were reached when lipases from Pseudomonas (3 enzymes) and Chromobacterium viscosum were used. (b)The production of cyclic compounds similar to dioxane, which undergo further polymerization. Amphoteric emulsifiers (lecithin) contain both anionic and cationic groups, and their surface-active properties are pH dependent [17, 18]. However, it was experimentally demonstrated that, under the assayed experimental conditions, these lipases are not capable of catalyzing the production of estolides with an acid value lower than 50âmgâKOH/g (data not shown), so that the noticeable decrease of the acid value observed in the above described experiments can be attributed mainly to the esterification reaction between polyricinoleic acid and polyglycerol. They are utilized for the purpose of restoring nutrients lost or degraded during production, fortifying or enriching certain foods in order to correct dietary deficiencies or adding nutrients to food substitutes. Table 5 shows the lipases tested, their specific activities (as declared by the manufacturer), and the amounts of protein used in each experiment. E476 is Polyglycerol polyricinoleate. The major components have the general structure shown in Figure 11(a), where the average value of is about 3. , , and each may be hydrogen or a linear condensation product of ricinoleic acid with itself, as in Figure 11(b) with n being on average between 5 and 8.Some of the specifications listed in Table 3 with the exception of refractive index are weight average analysis and do not indicate specific structural characteristics of PGPR. A typical structure of PGPR is shown in Figure 3. Multiphase systems consist of two or more distinctive phases; systems typical encountered in foods are water-in-oil (W/O), oil-in-water (O/W), solid-in-oil, gas-in-liquid, gas-, solid- or oil-in-water, and so on. B. R. Moreira, V. H. Perez, and H. F. de Castro, âCharacterization of Candida rugosa lipase immobilized on poly(N-methylolacrylamide) and its application in butyl butyrate synthesis,â, L. Guo, Z. Zhang, Y. Zhu, J. Li, and Z. Xie, âSynthesis of polysiloxane-polyester copolymer by lipase-catalyzed polycondensation,â, H. T. Dang, O. Obiri, and D. G. Hayes, âFeed batch addition of saccharide during saccharide-fatty acid esterification catalyzed by immobilized lipase: time course, water activity, and kinetic model,â, M. Goldberg, D. Thomas, and M. D. Legoy, âThe control of lipase-catalysed transesterification and esterification reaction rates. Emulsions such as chocolate and toffees would not exist in a stable form without them. This ADI, without the temporary prefix, was raised to 7.5âmg/kg body weight in the 17th report of JECFA in 1974 . The percentage of immobilized lipase obtained by physical adsorption on Lewatit MonoPlus MP 64 was higher than those obtained with porous glass because five times less enzyme was offered for immobilization, so that enzyme loading (mgâE/g support) was noticeably lower. Coupling parameters for the immobilization of, Lipases tested to catalyze the enzymatic production of PGPR [, Selection of lipases based on kinetic and economic aspects [, Coupling parameters for the immobilization of lipases onto Lewatit MonoPlus MP 64 [. (1)ââPreparation of the Fatty AcidsThe castor oil fatty acids are prepared by hydrolyzing castor oil with water and steam at elevated pressure without any added catalyst after which the resulting fatty acids are freed from glycerol by water washing. Other forms of cocoa butter crystals are not present in fat bloom. Measurements of the water content of the reaction medium revealed that, at 40Â°C, water continuously evaporated and that after 48âh (approximately) the reactor water content was independent of the initial water content and mainly dependent on environmental relative humidity. For this reason, a high performance reactor was tested for PGPR production. In the light of the above considerations, a study on the optimal initial amount of water in the reactor was deemed necessary. PGFAs allow a strong interfacial tension reduction between water and a wide variety of oils. The main applications of the emulsifiers are based on their ability to interact at the interface between phases. The ability of lipases to catalyze the reaction of synthesis is used in the manufacture of several products: pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, leather, detergents, foods, perfumery, medical diagnostics, and other organic synthetic materials . The use of dried enzyme powders, although often reported in laboratory scale experiments, is generally unsuitable for large scale processing in nonaqueous media. The use of food additives must always be labelled on the packaging of food products by their category (antioxidant, preservative, colour, etc.) These are not strict classifications, as many additives fall into more than one category . with either their name or E number. Hope, and J. PRODUCT NAME : E471 Glycerine Monostearate
Other authors suggest not a range but a single temperature: 220Â°C  or 200Â°C . (2)ââCondensation of the Ricinoleic Acid to Produce Polyricinoleic Acid, Also Called Ricinoleic Acid EstolideFatty acid condensation is brought about by heating the castor oil fatty acids at elevated temperatures under vacuum and in an inert atmosphere to prevent oxidation. The immobilized derivative of lipase from Mucor javanicus had the higher enzyme loading, 14.11âmgâE/g support.The above results did not differ sufficiently to permit us to decide at this stage which of the three lipases should be selected. (a)The polymers of interest, namely, polyglycerin, but with a broad distribution of homologues and significant levels of free glycerin. As can be seen, all the immobilized derivatives showed their ability to catalyze the esterification between polyricinoleic acid and polyglycerol. Fat bloom is more complicated, and oftentimes it may be more difficult to discover the actual source of the problem. In further studies the immobilization process should be optimized.Thus, three immobilized derivatives were prepared, and the results are shown in Table 7, where the protein content of the commercial lipases, the immobilization yields, and the enzyme loadings of all the immobilized derivatives are summarized, all data being based on the protein concentration values provided by Lowryâs method . From the legal point of view, food grade polyglycerol esters are divided in two classes: polyglycerol esters of edible fatty acids (E number: E475, also known as âPGFAâ) and polyglycerol polyricinoleate (E number: E476, also known as âPGPRâ). (4)ââEsterification of Polyricinoleic Acid with PolyglycerolThe final stage of the preparation involves heating an appropriate amount of polyglycerol with the polyricinoleic acid. However, it has been found that the amount of water necessary for enzyme activity might be very small, and, in the case of lipase, just a few layers around the enzyme surface are needed . The lipophilic moiety of the emulsifier often consists of hydrocarbon chains of fatty acids, and the hydrophilic part originates from more polar molecules such as glycerol, lactic acid, citric acid, and polyglycerol. Cocoa powder contains between 12â20% cocoa butter. However, the percentage of immobilized protein obtained with this lipase was approximately half that obtained with the other two lipases, and so the enzyme loading factor of this immobilized derivative was the lowest (8.59âmgâE/g support). (2)Processing agents. In the multiphase systems these emulsifiers will orientate themselves in the position which is favorable with respect to energy, and the emulsifiers will reduce the interfacial tension between the phases in the multiphase system, typically an O/W or W/O system (Figure 1). Due to the innocuous nature of these products, formulators continue to develop technologies that incorporate polyglycerol esters in a widening array of applications. USAGE AREA:
Obviously, it would be very convenient if the same lipase could serve as catalyst for the two reaction steps. [20â23]. âPolyglycerols in food applications,â Application data sheet. However, several studies revealed that Candida rugosa lipase was unsuitable for PGPR synthesis, and therefore others lipases were assayed for this purpose .A further twenty lipases from different sources were used, and the corresponding experiments of PGPR synthesis were performed. As well as that, removal of organic-solvent traces in products requires extra expense and increases manufacturing costs. Lowering yield value also improves the release of entrapped air in chocolate, leading to a smoother and more efficient molding and depositing. PACKAGE FEATURES... Telif Hakkı © 2013 | Ervesa. Figure 13 shows the reactions involved in the biosynthesis. This can be done by using a more anhydrous medium. 1 Kilogram (Min. Eight inorganic supports (two types of BioLite, Celite R-643, Chromosorb W, nonporous glass beads of two particle sizes, and porous glass beads of different pore sizes) and two organic carriers (cationic and anionic exchange resins, Dowex and Lewatit MonoPlus MP 64, resp.) E476 is a food additive used to make foods/sauces smoother and blend easier. In addition to projecting above the surface of the chocolate, these larger crystals may displace cocoa butter, forcing it to the surface. S. N. Modak and J. G. Kane, âStudies in estolides. Lower reaction rates have been detected below this value, and a slightly unfavourable effect could be observed at high temperature .Another decisive parameter in this process is the water content. Therefore, the immobilized lipase obtained by physical adsorption onto Lewatit MonoPlus MP 64 was chosen for PR production. Refractive index, however, is directly indicative of final chemical structure; for example, if the oligomer distribution of PGPR is not correct or distributed differently on the polyglycerol backbone, the refractive index measurement will not comply with the specifications as described in Table 3.One problem with this conventional process is that the step of polymerization of ricinoleic acid is complicated by the fact that there is a requirement to follow the refractive index (see Table 3) of the mixture, while polymerization of ricinoleic acid and esterificaction of polyglycerol and polyricinoleic acid is under way and to stop the reaction when the key value is indicated by the analysis. The wide berth for employment in a variety of reactions, endowed by this broad substrate specificity, is further enlarged by the fact that lipases are capable of catalyzing the reverse reaction of synthesis just as efficiently. It stands for polyglycerol polyricinoleate (no wonder companies use the abbreviation). The enzymatic procedure consists of two steps (similar to chemical procedure). Find here Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate, E476 wholesaler & Wholesale Dealers in India. In comparison, Direct Food Additives may be allowed only in certain specific foods at low maximum allowable levels. As with chocolate, when bloom occurs it does not affect the edibility of the cocoa powder but may have an aesthetic impact. It was also first used in chocolate couverture in the UK in 1952. Get complete information about Emulsifier (476) including health, benefits, selection guide, and usage tips. This work was partially support by a grant CTQ2011-24091, MICINN, Spain. Specific regulations, however, must be consulted before food products are designed for international markets. By polymerization of epichlorohydrin, followed by hydrolysis, which also leads to linear polyglycerin. (b)Interesterification:
In the tested conditions, the water content in the reaction medium was established at around 2000 ppm (Karl-Fisher) after 10âh (a totally anhydrous medium would lead to enzyme inactivation). Skóre škodlivosti: 3. The HLB balance of PGFA depends on the length of the polyglycerol chain (the number of hydrophilic hydroxyl groups present) and the degree of esterification. This fact, together with the properties displayed in Table 8, makes the enzymatic PGPR a valuable alternative to the chemical synthesized one.Nowadays the general applicability of this enzymatic method to obtain different fatty acid esters is under study. Polymers of epichlorohydrin (or glycidol) are prepared by methods similar to those of other oxirane monomers. Water plays multiple roles in lipase-catalyzed esterifications performed in nonconventional media. (PGFE) Polyglycerol Fatty Acid Esters (SSL) Sodium Stearoyl Lactylate (CSL) Calcium Stearoyl Lactylate (PGE) Tripolycerol Monostearates (PGPR) Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate (GML) Glyceryl Monnolaurate (DMG) Distilled Glycerin Monostearate (DATEM) Diacetyl Tartaric Acid Ester of Mono(Di)Glycerides (PGMS) Propylene Glycol Esters of Fatty Acid have been used. Copyright © 2013 Josefa Bastida-Rodríguez. Emulsifiers are essential components of many industrial food recipes (see Table 1), whether they are added for the purpose of water/oil (W/O) emulsification in its simplest form, for textural and organoleptic modification, for shelf life enhancement, or as complexing or stabilizing agents for other components such as starch or protein [9â13]. This process is designed to produce high quality products with reduced amounts of cyclic components which have reduced functionality (less hydroxyl groups available). Plant). Most researchers affirm that reduced pressure facilitates the extent of the reaction: 300â400âmmHg , 45âmmHg , or 20âmmHg . It serves to produce chocolate with desired refirement. Standards of Identity may also differ significantly. As the oils displace the cocoa butter, cocoa butter may sweep onto the surface of the piece of confectionary and recrystallize as bloom. However, drying the derivative or adding higher amounts of water led to a lower initial rate (specially the high water content) and a higher final acid value . This is achieved without compromising quality and taste and with cost savings. It is important to note that many of the lipases were part of two kits  and the amount available was limited. The types and sizes of the lipophilic and hydrophilic moieties determine the functional behavior in multiphase systems. Since some cocoa butter is present, it must be tempered during manufacturing, just as chocolate is. E476 (Polyglycerol polyricinoleate) Chemical Structure. US $10.00-$50.00 / Kilogram. to maintain or improve nutritional quality; to maintain product quality and freshness; to aid in the processing or preparation of food; there is a technological need for their use; they present no hazard to the health of the consumer. There are four general categories of food additives: nutritional additives, processing agents, preservatives, and sensory agents. Fat bloom typically appears as lighter color spots on the chocolate. PGPR is widely known as an excellent water-in-oil emulsifier in the food industry, because it forms very stable emulsions even when the water content is very high, such as 80% [33â39]. İkitelli OSB, Aykosan Sanayi Sitesi 2.Kısım 9.Ada A Blok Başakşehir, E476 ( Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate esters) (PGPR), E482 (Calsiyum Stearol -2- Lactylate) (C…, E481 (Sodium Stearol -2- Lactylate) (SSL…, E477 (Propan -1,2- Diol esters of fatty …, E476 ( Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate este…, E475 (Polglycerol esters of fatty acids)…, E472f (Mixed acetic and tartaric acid es…, E472e (Mono and diacetyl tartaric acid e…, E472d (Tartaric acid esters of mono-and …, E472c ( Citric acid esters of mono- and …, E472b (Lactic Acid Esters of Mono and Di…, E472a ( Acetic acid esters of mono- and …. In this procedure  polyglycerol is mixed with ricinoleic, acid and they are allowed to react at 200Â°C, with stirring and sweep. The brief 3 step manufacturing processes as follows: In these conditions, the objective of the European Commission Directive was attained after 100âh (AV = 5.9âmgâKOH/g) but even lower values can be reached at longer times (after 125âh the AV was 4.9âmgâKOH/g). The process is continued until a sample withdrawn from the reaction mixture is found to have a suitable acid value (acid value â¤ 6âmgâKOH/g in Europe) and refractive index. Its scientific name is Polyglycerol polyricinoleate. Some of the crystals are stable, but other crystals are not and will actually change form over time. The safety of PGPR consumption has been widely studied. The safety testing programme on PGPR in the 1950s included acute toxicity studies in several species, 30 and 45âwk rat feeding trials, a rat reproduction study over three generations, and a number of indirect metabolism studies to show that PGPR is digested and utilized like a normal dietary fat. HV is a measurement of the free hydroxyl groups, and any reduction is concomitant with a decrease in AV because one of each is consumed when an ester linkage is formed . This page is about the meanings of the acronym/abbreviation/shorthand E476 in the Miscellaneous field in general and in the Food Additives terminology in particular. PGPR is a mixture of esterified products manufactured by the esterification of polyglycerol with condensed castor oil fatty acids. It is well known that chemical production of PGPR  is carried out in four stages:(1)preparation of the castor oil fatty acids,(2)condensation of the castor oil fatty acids,(3)preparation of polyglycerol, and(4)partial esterification of the condensed castor oil fatty acids with polyglycerol. The Î² crystals are slightly smaller than the Î²' or Î± forms, so that when this transition occurs, the chocolate contracts. After the cocoa butter hardens, these unstable forms will slowly change their forms to the stable Î² form. The potential of this relatively easy to perform bioconversion for industrial purposes seems to be enormous, but there are only few examples of successful production processes in practice. The European Community (EC) regulates food emulsifiers in an analogous fashion to United States regulations, identifying the additives with E numbers. When chocolate is used to coat nuts or fillings that contain oils or fats (such as nut butters) that are incompatible with chocolate, the oils may actually seep into or through the chocolate over time. The same results were obtained when derivative was used as obtained and when small amounts of water were added. None of the twelve remaining lipases were able to produce a PGPR with an acid value lower that 6âmgâKOH/g, which is the requirement of the European Commission Directive , although we considered that, after applying appropriate optimization procedures, one or more of these enzymes might be able to efficiently catalyze the enzymatic synthesis of PGPR .The twelve chosen lipases were all from microbial sources, being some 1,3 specific and others ârandomâ lipases. However, the main application of PGPR is in the chocolate industry, where, besides its action as an emulsifier, it also has important properties as a viscosity modifier and thus improves the moulding properties of the molten chocolate. Table 6 shows the acid values reached after 7 days of reaction, which permits a better comparison of the obtained results. In the case of the anion exchange resin, the acid value dropped from 180 to 50 in 150âh, while the best result of the other derivatives was a fall to 136 in 285âh (porous glass 75â400). Under these conditions, any residual monomer (epichlorohydrin or glycidol) is typically reduced to levels below 1âppm. Figure 17 shows the variation of the acid value of the reaction mixtures with time. Commission Directive 2008/84/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 August 2008 laying down specific purity criteria on food additives other than colours and sweeteners. Polymerized ricinoleic acid, also called ricinoleic acid estolides, is obtained by different methods which are discussed below. Other countries, which have not formed trading communities, may have regulations, which are unique [5â7]. Maximum levels of PGPR in foodstuff. 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